HVAC - Introduction


A typical HVAC system comprises of the heating or cooling producing equipment (boilers, heat pumps etc), pumps and/or fans, piping networks, and heat exchangers transferring or absorbing heat from a space or a process.

The current part of the software is devoted to the analysis of chillers, as a part of an HVAC system. Chillers, in the current work, are defined to be heat pumps (HP) used for cooling, possibly reversible able to produce heat. Studies have shown that about 90% of the energy in an HVAC system is consumed by the chiller/heat pump and the rest 10% by peripheral machinery.

Data for the analysis is drawn from the Eurovent-Cecomaf database. Differences in energy performance between different machines contained in the database are significant and is in the range

Energy performance at full load

Chiller type

EER
Min- Max
COP
Min- Max

Air cooled

1.61 - 3.97

2.16 - 4.18

Water cooled

2.62 - 6.38

2.33 - 4.94

Energy consumption for cooling is gaining attention during the last years, since it is contributing greatly to the electricity peaks in summer, threatening entire regions with a blackout. A number of studies estimate that air conditioning contributes to peaks in excess of 40%. Heat pumps, on the other hand, are increasingly used for heating in tertiary sector buildings.

Consideration of the energy efficiency parameter in the choice of chillers (heat pumps) is, therefore, of outmost importance.

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